The future development of integrated transport
Most cities have evolved separate land-based, air and, in some cases, waterborne transport over the years. The very separateness of these transport systems may have been the key to their viability in the face of logistical and physical constraints. Major cities like London and Paris have national rail and coach networks radiating from many stations, and both central and peripheral to their inner hearts. Despite the theoretical opportunities for riverborne transport linking other stations, the more universal solution of underground railway lines has been adopted. Only for waterside cities like Venice and Sydney can ferry systems make a real contribution. New low-density ‘cities’ like Milton Keynes in the UK in the 1960s and national capitals like Canberra and Abuja created in their planning networks of roads, bus-ways, etc., but high-density cities are not by definition planned from scratch.