The Turn of the Century Europe and its Influences, Prelude to Modernism (1870–1910)
The architects discussed in this chapter are generally considered premodern, although many of them have been credited with initiating elements of a modern style. After the decline of the widespread neoclassical influence, architecture was undergoing transition. At the turn of the twentieth century, the technology of world travel facilitated the transfer of knowledge and thus carried architectural ideas between countries. Industrialization, growing urban areas, and relative economic stability all contributed to divergent thinking. These changing environments saw European influence penetrate into India and Asia. Such transition also allowed for the emergence of new styles, such as the Arts and Crafts movement in Britain; Art Nouveau, beginning in France, Belgium, and Spain; and Secession in Austria. The United States suspended tradition by initiating construction of the tall building and encouraging development to the western regions of the country. Japan opened its ports to trade and consciously set a path toward westernization known as Meiji.