Models and frameworks for total quality management
Early TQM frameworks In the early 1980s manufacturers in the US and Europe found that Japanese industry had become much more competitive. In some instances, Japanese products of similar or better quality were available in the market at less than the cost price of making them in the West. This created an immediate interest in Japanese manufacturing processes; and the most obvious point of difference was the adoption of quality management practices. Initially, industry leaders were confused because they saw the practice of quality management as being inextricably linked with Japanese culture. It took some years to untangle the two and develop a clearer understanding of the core management practices that had created the differences in process productivity. At this stage there were many attempts to construct lists and frameworks to help this process.