chapter  1
16 Pages


Waterborne transport of materials and goods has for centuries been the main prerequisite for trade between nations and regions, and has without doubt played an important role in creating economic development and prosperity. The cost of maritime transport is very competitive compared with land and airborne transport, and the increase to the total product cost incurred by shipping represents only a few percent. Negative aspects of waterborne transport include longer transport time as a result of relatively low ship speed, congestion in harbours resulting in time delays, as well as less efficient integration with other forms of transport and distribution.