Chapters 3 and 4 were concerned with the use of data from within the organization, or data and specific services already available ‘offthe-peg’ from outside bodies. Inevitably, there are many situations for which existing information is too specific, too general, out of date, unavailable, or in some other way inappropriate for providing a solution to a specific problem with which a manager is faced. This is when it is necessary to consider generating original first-hand data, which is collected with the special data requirement that the manager has, as its sole objective. This type of research is referred to as primary research, because it is first-hand. It is also known as field research, because it generally involves going out into the marketplace, or field, to gather data. The term ‘made-to-measure’ research underlines the fact that the research programme is tailored to meet the precise information needs for which it is required.