chapter
16 Pages

INDEX,

Administrator identification, 348 Agility, 19 Allee, Verna, 49 Architecture, community. See

Community architecture

Architecture, knowledge. See Knowledge architecture

Assessment. See Community assessment

Assets intangible, 4, 5 tangible, 3, 4

Best practices assessment, 187-88, 199 design, 164-65 establishment, 183 expansion, 203-4 growth, 195-96 launch, 169-70 project definition, 152-53

Branding process model and, 125 site, 157 team, 22 values and, 86

Building communities. See Community building

Business case, 68-70 Business rules, 4

Capabilities assessing, 24-26 competitive advantage and,

6-8, 59, 60-61 customer demands for,

8-9 defined, 4-5 five C’s and, 141, 208 generative, 80, 82-83 implementation/growth and,

206, 208 increasing, 4-8, 20 individual, 5-6, 23 knowledge management

and, 28 marketplace factors and, 6-8,

319-20 organizational, 4-8, 23, 24-26,

319-21, 331 strategic, 21-24 strategy/performance and,

59-60, 206 value networks and, 55-59,

321-22 in your organization, 208 See also Meta-capabilities

Capital, knowledge. See Knowledge capital

Catalysts. See Change agents Challenges

community, 327 individual, 326 organization, 327-28 strategies for, 328

Champions, 43

Change agents, 319-23 capabilities/marketplace and,

6-8, 319-20 challenges to, 326-28 customer relationship, 320 roles and, 324-26

Change management, 242-43 Charter, project, 237-44 Checkpoints, 183-88, 280-82 Choo, Chun Wei, 29 Clarica, 9

alignment tool, 70, 71 communities of practice, 39-40 Knowledge Capital Initiative,

13-23 knowledge strategy, 14-19 Learning Community, 78-79 learning/knowledge creation,

72-73 measurement approach, 213-23 organization, 73-74 overview, 121-22 problem-solving forum, 71-72 Strategic Capabilities Unit,

21-24, 77 technology infrastructure, 46-47 value propositions, 213-23 Web site, 230 See also Community

development Coalescing stage, 48 Codes of conduct, 155 Coherence, 20 Collaboration

approaches to, 39, 89-90 architectural components, 84-89 connectivity and, 141, 206, 207 external, 63 factors driving, 62-63 five C’s and, 140, 207

as fundamental, 60-61 as goal, 19-20 implementation/growth and,

205, 207 internal, 63 organization structure and, 5 processes, 156 synchronous vs. asynchronous,

89-90 technology and, 99-100, 322 tools, 19 virtual vs. face-to-face, 89-90 in your organization, 116-17,

207 Commitment

five C’s and, 141, 207 implementation/growth and,

205-6, 207 as measure, 211

Communications activities, 291 best practice, 188 charter sample, 242 of data/recommendations,

197-98 fact sheets, 261-63 high-level plan, 257-61 newsletters, 292 plan, 154, 161-62 recognition letters, 309-11 as structural capital, 25 toolkit guidelines, 352-54 value proposition and, 189,

191-92 Communities, in your organization

architecture for, 116-17 capabilities and, 208 collaboration and, 116-17, 207 conversations and, 207 design for, 171-72

development of, 141-42 discussion site, 331 existing, 51-52, 314 human capital and, 24-25 knowledge capital and, 24-26 launching, 171-72 learning and, 116-17 strategic context, 74-75 technology infrastructure for,

116-17, 171-72 trust and, 117, 316 value proposition and, 52, 226

Communities, strategic context, 40-47, 55-75

business case for, 68-70 at Clarica, 70-74 competitive advantage and, 55,

59, 60-63 components, 91-105 member roles, 43 patterns, 74 policies/procedures, 98-99 process/practice, 44-45 roles/responsibilities, 42-44,

94-98 strategy and, 59-61 support roles, 44 technology infrastructure,

99-105 vendor partnerships and, 101-5 vision/strategy, 41, 91-94 in your organization, 74-75 See also Community

development Communities of practice

action and, 64-65 applying, 24-26, 51-52, 74-75,

116-17, 171-72, 226 benefits of, 49-50 business case for, 68-70

Communities of practice (cont’d.) characteristics, 34-40, 235 communities within, 32-33,

50-51 competitive advantage and, 55,

59, 60-63 conceptual framework, 1 conventions, 80, 82, 86, 96, 97 defined, 2, 27-28, 32-34,

50-51 elements of, 35 emergence of, 314-15 existing, 51-52, 314 future of, 328-30 governance of, 39, 154, 155-56,

249-50, 343-44 informal, 35, 36-37 infrastructure, 46-47, 73-74 knowledge management and,

13-14, 27-32 leadership endorsement of,

108-10 lifecycles, 47-49 as new strategy, 12-13 organizational structure and,

61-68 overview of, 1-2 process/practice of, 206-7 purpose, common, 39-40 range of, 34-38 structured, 36-37, 38 supported, 36-37, 38 term origin, 12

Community architecture, 78-91 components, 79-80 conventions of, 80, 82 generative capabilities and, 80,

82-83 illustrated, 79 integrated approach, 89-90

productive inquiry and, 17, 38-39, 79, 80-81, 84-85

roles/responsibilities, 90 technology infrastructure, 80,

83-89 in your organization, 116-17

Community assessment best practice, 187-88, 199 communication and, 196, 198 data collection/analysis and, 196,

197 illustrated, 185, 197 informal feedback, 184, 185, 280 process review, 221-22 progress/value, 183-88, 280-82 purpose/direction, 196-99 recommendations from, 197-98 reflections on, 186-87, 198 stakeholder, 184, 185 statistics, 186

Community building collaboration and, 82-83 components of, 91-105 conventions, 80, 82 environment creation, 77-78 evolution of, 114, 115-16 expectations, 110-11 leadership endorsement, 108-10 learning and, 82-83, 106-7 partnering mindset and, 108 policies/procedures, 98-99 precursors for, 105-11 productive inquiry and, 38-39,

79, 80-81, 84-85 recommendations, 224 roles/responsibilities, 90, 94-98 shared purpose/ownership, 106 success criteria, 111-14 systematic, 315-16 toolkit guidelines, 333-54

trust and, 107 vision/strategy, 91-94 See also Community

architecture; Technology infrastructure

Community definition. See Project definition

Community design best practice, 152-53, 164-65 components, 153-65 illustrated, 144, 171 overview, 143-45 personnel, 245-48 project definition, 145-53 reflections on, 150-51, 162-64 in your organization, 171-72 See also Community launch

Community development, 121-42 agent network, 128-30 branding and, 125 capabilities focus, 124-25, 141,

206, 208 collaboration and, 140, 205, 207 commitment, 126, 141, 205-6,

207 connectivity and, 141, 206, 207 conversations and, 140, 204, 207 exclusive sales force and, 126-28 guiding principles, 123-24 knowledge-sharing and, 123-28 milestones, 130 objectives of, 135 outline, 156 phases, 137, 138-40 process review, 216-23 project management approach,

133-36 strategic context, 136-40 strategic imperatives, 124 subject of, 128-30

technology infrastructure, 126 tools for, 135-36 in your organization, 141-42

Community establishment, 176-83, 274-80

actions, example, 277-79 best practice, 183 facilitators and, 177, 179-80,

274-77 illustrated, 177 membership and, 177, 178-79 participation, 177, 180-81 personnel, 278-79 reflections on, 182 Web site and, 177, 181

Community expansion, 199-204 best practice, 203-4 contribution guidelines,

304-9 example, 300-311 illustrated, 201 membership and, 200, 201-2 next steps, 200, 202 participation guidelines, 301-4 recognition and, 200, 202 recommendations and, 200-201 reflections on, 203 sponsor review, 200, 203

Community growth, 188-96 activities for, 189, 190-91 best practice, 195-96 communication and, 189,

191-92 expertise network, 189, 192-93 illustrated, 190 knowledge harvest and, 189, 193 process review, 220-21 reflections on, 193-95 site expectations/limitations,

189, 191

Community growth (cont’d.) value proposition and, 189,

191-92, 282-92 Community implementation,

173-88 assessing, 183-88 establish community for, 176-83 illustrated, 176

Community launch, 165-70 actions, example, 269-70 best practice, 169-70 example, 267-70 illustrated, 144, 165, 171 member readiness, 166-67 overview, 143-45 personnel, 245-48 process review, 220 ramping up, 167-68 reflections on, 168-69 site readiness, 166 sponsor sign-off, 166 in your organization, 171-72 See also Community design

Community site branding, 157 expectations/limitations, 189,

191 literacy, 177, 181 membership and, 189, 191 readiness, 166 as tool, 149 training, 254-57, 282-92 See also Web tool

Competencies core, 93 as measure, 211

Competitive advantage capabilities and, 6-8, 59, 60-61 communities of practice and, 55,

59, 60-63

knowledge strategy and, 4, 9 strategy for, 55, 59, 60-63

Components, community, 44-45, 91-105, 153-65

actions, example, 263-66 core competencies, 93 cross-generation exchanges,

93-94 deliverables, 264-66 development example,

249-66 development needs, 93 establishing, 153-65 functional expertise, 93 illustrated, 92, 153 objectives, 264-66 personnel, 264-66 process review, 218-20 strategic theme, 91-93 vision/strategy, 91-94

Conceptual framework, 1 Confidentiality, 193-95 Connectivity, 141, 206, 207 Connectors, 42 Content, 158-59

establishing, 154 identifying, 159 selection criteria, 158 soliciting, 159 submission format, 158

Context defining communities and,

233-36 process review and, 217-18 purpose identification, 232-33 setting, 146-48, 232-36 See also Communities, strategic

context Contribution guidelines, 304-9 Conventions, community, 86

community architecture and, 80, 82

community role and, 96 individual role and, 97

Conversations, 84-85, 88 five C’s and, 140, 207 implementation/growth and,

204, 207 individual role in, 97 productive inquiry and, 84-85 in your organization, 207

Core competency, 93 Culture

assessing, 25 capabilities and, 5-6 context and, 147 knowledge-sharing, 142 knowledge strategy and, 17-18 leadership, 14, 15, 17-18, 324 as structural capital, 25 technology infrastructure and,

89 Customer capital, 10-12

assessing, 25 defined, 10

Customers capabilities, increasing, 9 knowledgeable workforces and,

8-9 relationships, 320

Data analysis, 196, 197 collection, 187, 196, 197 knowledge exchange and, 65-66 knowledge measurement and,

212-13 recommendations from, 196,

197-98 Davenport, Tom, 28

Decision-making, 20 Defining projects. See Project

definition Deliverables

community establishment, 278-79

component development, 264-66

design/launch, 245-48 project definition, 150

Design, community. See Community design

Development collaborative, 103 phases, 137, 138-39 See also Community

development Dewey, John, 141 Direction evaluation, 196-99,

293-300 data analysis for, 196-97 member survey, 294-99 recommendations, 197-98 report, 299-300 usage statistics, 293-94

Education. See Online training Education level, 211 Environmental factors, 62, 63,

147-48 Establishment. See Community

establishment Evaluation. See Community

assessment; Direction evaluation

Evolution, community, 114, 115-16

Exchange. See Knowledge exchange Expansion. See Community

expansion

Expectations realistic, 110-11 stakeholder, 187

Experience, employee, 211 Explicit knowledge, 16-17, 44, 65,

66-67 External collaboration, 63

Face-to-face meetings, 89-90 Facilitators

action log, 269 community establishment and,

177, 179-80, 274-77 defined, 44 identifying, 346-48 introducing, 177, 179-80 process review, 216-23 roles/responsibilities, 154,

160-61, 179-80, 274-77 toolkit guidelines, 346-48

Feedback constant, 188 informal, 184, 185, 280 mechanisms, 86 membership, 185 sponsor, 185 survey, 214-16, 294-99 vendor, 186

Firewalls, 88, 157 Five C’s, 140-41, 204-7

Generative capabilities, 80, 82-83

Governance, 39 establishing, 154, 155-56 example, 249-50 toolkit guidelines, 343-44

Growth. See Community growth

HR investment, 211

Human capital, 10-12 defined, 10 measuring, 211-13 in your organization, 24-25

Hurdles, 172

Implementation. See Community implementation

Individual capabilities domain, 23 illustrated, 6 organizational vs., 5-6 purpose, 23 roles, 23

Individual Capability Team, 22 Individuals

challenges, 326 learning by, 106-7 roles of, 96-98, 325 shared ownership, 106

Informal community of practice, 35, 36-37

Information access, 14, 98-99 defined, 64 productive inquiry and, 17,

38-39, 79, 80-81, 84-85 See also Knowledge; Knowledge

exchange Infrastructure characteristics, 37 Innovation, 20, 69, 211 Inquiry. See Productive inquiry Intangible assets, 5

defined, 4 managing, 9-12 See also Knowledge capital

Internal collaboration, 63 Internet tools. See Web tools Interpersonal skills, 108 Invitation letter, 250

Involvement, sustainable, 86 Isolation, 68-69

Job satisfaction, 211

Key words, 158 Know Inc., 331 Knowing cycle, 132 Knowledge

defined, 64 harvesting, 189, 193 information and, 64, 66, 98-99,

132 tacit/explicit, 16-17, 44, 65,

66-67 Knowledgeable workforces, 8-9 Knowledge access, 67-68

as community component, 44, 45

exchange and, 63-65, 67-68 existing, 44, 45 productive inquiry and, 17,

38-39, 79, 80-81, 86-87 purpose of, 64 as responsibility, 96 technology infrastructure and,

16, 81, 86-87 Knowledge architecture

illustrated, 16, 64 Knowledge Capital Initiative

and, 15-17 productive inquiry and, 17,

38-39, 80-81, 84-85 strategic capabilities and, 23

Knowledge Architecture Team, 22 Knowledge capital

assessing, 24-26 assumptions, 10-11 defined, 4 generation of, 8

illustrated, 12 intangible assets and, 9-12 measuring, 210-13 model, 9-12 strategies, 12-13, 17-18 in your organization, 24-26

Knowledge Capital Initiative core components, 13 development of, 9-10 goals of, 19-21 information access and, 14 knowledge architecture and, 14,

15-17 knowledge strategy, 14-19 management strategy, 13-14

Knowledge Capital Model, 9-12 Knowledge creation

center, 72-73 as community component, 44,

45, 92 learning organizations and,

132-33 productive inquiry and, 17,

38-39, 79, 80-81, 84-85 as responsibility, 96

Knowledge era, 3-4 Knowledge exchange

access and, 63-65, 67-68 as community component, 44,

45 cross-generational, 93-94 data and, 65-66 defined, 64 diverse applications of, 4 information access vs., 98-99 measuring, 210-13 methods, 44, 45 need for, 80 productive inquiry and, 17,

38-39, 79, 80-81, 84-85

Knowledge exchange (cont’d.) tacit/explicit, 16-17, 44, 65,

66-67 types of, 65

Knowledge management communities and, 31-32 defined, 28-29 framework, 29-30 illustrated, 29 overview, 27-32 strategy overview, 13-14 value of, 30-31

Knowledge sharing as community component, 92 cultures, 142 organizations, 123-28, 142

Language statement, 156 Launch. See Community launch Lave, Jean, 12, 33 Leadership

culture, 14, 15, 17-18, 324 endorsement, 108-10 as measure, 211

Learning architectural components, 84-89 center for, 72-73 as community component, 154,

159-60 conversations and, 204 as goal, 20 individual role and, 97 knowledge/information and,

66-67 as measure, 211 as norm, 4 productive inquiry and, 17,

38-39, 79, 81, 82-83, 84-85

self-initiated, 106-7

technology infrastructure, 154, 159-60

in your organization, 116-17 See also Online training

Learning Community, 78-79 Learning organizations, 130-33,

141 activities of, 131 knowing cycle and, 132

Letters of recognition, 309-11 Lifecycles, community, 47-49 Lurkers, 43

Management roles, 325 Management supporters, 44 Mandates, 36 Market influences

on capabilities, 6-8, 319-20 value networks and, 57-58

Maturing stage, 48 Maturity model, 323-26

accountability spine and, 317-19 community building and,

315-16 illustrated, 315 individual roles and, 325 inherent communities in, 316 leadership roles and, 324 management roles and, 325 organizational structure and,

317 Mavens, 42 Measures, 209-26

Clarica approach to, 213-23 human capital, 211-13 organization goals and, 210-11 survey, 214-16 value proposition, 210-13

Membership, 174-75 call-back script, 250-53

characteristics, 36, 234-35 commitment, 141, 205-6, 207 criteria, 155 description, 234, 235 establishing, 154, 156, 173 expansion and, 200, 201-2 expectations, 187 feedback, 185 invitation, 156, 250 needs, activities for, 190-91 needs assessment, 177, 179 profiles of, 177, 178-79 readiness, 166-67 roles, 43 selection process example,

249-50 styles, 177, 179 survey, 294-99 toolkit guidelines, 345-46 value and, 212-13 Web site and, 189, 191

Membership directory, 86 Meta-capabilities

defined, 60-61 increasing, 331 individual/organization and,

320-21 Milestones, 130 Mindsets, 5 Multitasking, 86

Networking connectivity and, 141, 206,

207 multiple communities, 88 strengthening, 192-93 technology and, 57, 58

Network partnerships, 70 Networks, value, 55-59, 321-22 Newsletter, 292

Objectives community establishment,

278-79 component development,

264-66 design/launch, 245-48

Obstacles, 172 Online training, 282-92

checklist, 283-86 communication activities, 291 evaluating, 289-91 introductory letter, 254 newsletter, 292 one-day guide, 254-57 participant e-mail, 287-88 toolkit guidelines, 349-51 Web tool, 135-36, 154, 159-60,

254-57, 282-92, 349-51 Operational framework, 229-30 Organizational capabilities

assessing, 24-26 chart, 23 competitive advantage and, 6-8 culture and, 5-6 defined, 5 growth and, 6 illustrated, 6 increasing, 4-8 individual vs., 5-6 market demands and, 8 market influences on, 6-8,

319-20 meta-capabilities and, 60-61,

320-21, 331 Organizational Capability Team, 22 Organizational learning, 131 Organizational structure, 5, 61-68

accountability spine and, 317-19 alignment tool, 71 collaboration and, 5

Organizational structure (cont’d.) competitive advantage and,

61-63 existing vs. new, 317 flexible, 87-88 infrastructure, 73-74 knowledge strategies and, 21-24

Organizations assets of, 3-4, 5, 9-12 challenges to, 327-28 core competencies, 93 customer capabilities and, 9 existing communities in, 51-52,

314 goals of, 210-11 inherent communities in, 316 knowing, 132-33 knowledge-intensive, 9-10 knowledge-sharing, 123-28, 142 knowledgeable workforces and,

8-9 learning, 130-33 roles of, 81, 94-95 strategic issues, 4 support from, 37, 39 value proposition and, 9, 14, 22,

55-59, 210-13 Outcomes, 36 Ownership, 106

Participation, 85-86 encouraging, 177, 180-81 guidelines, 155, 301-4 process review, 223

Partnerships mindset/skills, 108 network, 70 with technology vendors, 101-5

Performance, 206 Performance limits, 4

Personnel community establishment,

278-79 component development,

264-66 design/launch, 245-48

Phases, development, 137, 138-40

Platforms. See Technology Policies, 98-99

need for, 182 process review, 223

Potential stage, 47, 48 Problem solving forum, 71-72 Procedures, 98-99 Process review, 216-23

assessment, 221-22 community launch, 220 components, 218-20 context setting and, 217-18 facilitator/project manager,

216-22 growth, 220-21 policies/procedures, 223 project definition, 217-18 recommendations, 224-25 roles/responsibilities, 222-23 technology infrastructure, 223 vision/strategy, 222

Product evolution, 103 Productive inquiry, 38-39, 79,

80-81 conventions, 82 conversations and, 84-85, 88 defined, 17, 79 individual role and, 97 information and, 80-81 knowledge access and, 81, 86-87 knowledge and, 80-81 learning from, 82-83

tacit/explicit knowledge and, 16-17, 44, 65, 66-67

Productivity, 211 Project charter, 237-44

overview, 237-38 sample, 238-44

Project coordinator, 336-37 Project definition, 145-53, 232-48

actions, example, 245-48 approach design, 148-49 best practice, 152-53 charter sample, 238-44 components, 235 context, 146-48, 232-33 defining communities and, 147,

148, 233-36 deliverables, 150 illustrated, 146 objectives, example, 245-48 overview, 143-45 process review, 217-18 project overview, 236-37 reflection, 150-51 resource requirements,

149-50 Project management, 133-36, 142,

174, 216-22 Prusak, Larry, 28 Purpose

alignment of, 104 characteristics, 36 charter sample, 239-40 common, 39-40 context and, 147 evaluating, 196-99, 293-300 identifying, 232-33, 235 process review, 222 shared, 106 statement of, 155 strategic, 41

strategic capabilities community, 23

toolkit guidelines, 337-38

Quality management, 242 Quick-start toolkit, 333-54

Recognition, 202, 309-11 Recommendations

data and, 196, 197-98 evaluating, 200-201 process review, 224-25

Reference card, 159 Reflections

assessment, 186-87, 198 community design, 150-51,

162-64 component, 162-64 development, 141-42 establishment, 182 expansion, 203 growth, 193-95 launch, 168-69 project definition,

150-51 Report, 299-300 Resource requirements,

149-50 Responsibilities

charter sample, 243-44 community architecture, 90,

94-98 defining, 149 facilitator, 154, 160-61, 179-80,

274-77 knowledge creation/access, 96 process review, 222-23 steering group, 44, 149

Return on investment, 110-11, 209 Risk management, 241-42

Roles charter sample, 243-44 communities of practice, 42-44 community, 95-96 community architecture, 90,

94-98 connector, 42 defining, 149 facilitator, 154, 160-61, 179-80,

274-77 individual, 96-98, 325 leadership, 324 management, 325 maven, 42 member, 43 organizational, 81, 94-95 process review, 222-23 salesman, 42 steering group, 44, 149 strategic capabilities community,

23 support, 44

Salesmen, 42 Scalability, 88 Schon, Donald, 142 Security, 88

audit, 157 firewalls, 88, 157 statement, 156

Self-service mentality, 86 Sole contributors, 43 Sparkers, 43 Speed, 69-70 Sponsors, 44

characteristics, 36 commitment and, 141, 205-6,

207 communication with, 352-54 expansion and, 200, 203

expectations, 187 feedback, 185 recognition from, 309-11 sign-off from, 166 support, 174, 224

Stakeholders communication with, 174,

352-54 expectations, 187 feedback, 185

Statistics baseline, 188 community assessment, 186 data for, 187 usage, 293-94 See also Measures

Steering group feedback, 185 identifying, 334-36 roles/responsibilities, 44, 149

Stewardship stage, 48 Strategic Capabilities Unit, 21-24,

77 Strategic issues

capabilities and, 4, 5-7 knowledge capital, 12-13 old, 4

Strategic theme, 91-93 Strategies

capability/performance and, 59-60, 206

challenge, 328 charter sample, 241-42 knowledge, 14-19, 25-26 knowledge management,

13-14 as patterns, 74

Structural capital, 10-12, 25 Structured community of practice,

36-37, 38, 87-89

Success criteria, 111-14 acceptance/support, 113 community building, 111-13 mechanics, 113-14

Supported community of practice, 36-37, 38, 87-89

Surveys, 214-16, 294-99 Synthesizers, 43

Tacit knowledge, 16-17, 44, 65, 66-67

Tactical framework, 119 Tangible assets, 3, 4 Technology

connectivity and, 141, 206, 207 development cycle, 99-100 evolution, 322 impact, 55-59 leveraging, 101 platforms, 46, 99-101, 108 travel and, 101

Technology infrastructure, 46-47 blending, 89-90 choosing, 149 components, 84-89 conversations and, 84-85, 88 customized, 157 effective, 108 establishing, 154, 156-57 flexibility, 87-89 key challenge, 84 knowledge access and, 16, 81,

86-87 knowledge strategy and, 14, 15,

18-19 participation and, 85-86 process model, 126 process review, 223 qualities of, 88-89 service agreement, 157

vendors, partnering with, 101-5 in your organization, 116-17,

171-72 See also Web tools

Tenure, 211 Toolkit, quick-start, 333-54 Tools. See Web tools Training. See Online training Transformation stage, 48 Travel, 101 Trust, 85, 107

confidentiality and, 193-95 project definition and, 151 in your organization, 117, 316

Turnover, 211

User support determining, 349-51 establishing, 154 guide, 159 technical issues, 157 See also Online training

Value assessing, 25, 183-88, 199,

209-10, 280-82 creating, 151, 224 knowledge management, 30-31 networks, 55-59 as structural capital, 25

Value proposition, 9 capabilities and, 22 Clarica’s measurement of,

213-23 communication and, 189,

191-92 enhancing, 14 example, 213-23 measuring, 210-13 networks and, 55-59

Value proposition (cont’d.) new, 322-23 organization goals and, 210-11 in your organization, 52, 226

Vendors feedback, 186 partnering with, 101-5 relationships, 172

Virtual meetings, 89-90 Vulnerability, 222

Web tools branding, 157 components, 83-89

development cycle, 99-101 expectations, 191 limitations, 191 literacy, 177, 181 membership and, 189, 191 project approach and, 149 readiness, 166 training, 135-36, 154, 159-60,

254-57, 282-92, 349-51 See also Technology

infrastructure Wenger, Etienne, 12, 34 Witnesses, 43 Workforces, knowledgeable, 8-9