There are a range of ﬁlm styles as distinct, for example, as Laurence Olivier’s ‘Henry V’ and Billy Wilder’s ‘Double Indemnity’, which were both made in the same year (1944). Olivier achieved a formalism based on sets designed with the colour and perspective of mediaeval illustrations, whilst Wilder’s visual style is often based on ﬁlm noir’s low-key lighting and night shooting on wet, rain-streaked roads. Camerawork styles and visual imagery are not always inﬂuenced by contemporary fashion. The above two ﬁlms, made in diﬀerent countries, had two very distinct visual styles. To detail fully the variety of styles that have originated in the history of ﬁlm and television would require a separate book. Below are just a few examples of diﬀerent approaches to compositional styles. The dominant inﬂuence on the look of the ﬁlm is usually the direc-
tor, although often the director of photography or production designer have a signiﬁcant input. Styles of camerawork technique range from the standard storytelling coverage designed as an uncomplicated, undemanding entertainment that keeps faith with the expectations of most of its potential audience, to productions that completely reject conventional visual codes and favour an indirect and oblique presentation. This ‘alternative technique’ has been discussed in Chapter 2.