You may have seen ﬁlms or TV programmes where you become very conscious of the camerawork and continuity editing conventions are not followed. Music videos are often full of ambiguous images, rapid changes in location and an apparent complete disregard for the invisible technique tradition. Many commercials tell a 30-second story in a similar way. Some ﬁlmmakers have consciously rejected the central philosophy
of the invisible technique tradition and do not wish to disguise how the ﬁlm was created. They appear to expose the mechanics of ﬁlm making with obtrusive cutting and camera movement divorced from action. ‘Breathless’ (1959), directed by Jean-Luc Goddard, has a sequence
of an open-topped car driving through Paris. The two main characters in the ﬁlm (played by Jean Paul Belmondo and Jean Seberg) are shot from behind, with Belmondo driving. The shot of Jean Seberg is edited without cutaways causing the view through the windscreen to abruptly change. There is no attempt to disguise these rapid transitions to diﬀerent locations. The standard continuity editing technique is abandoned. Composition in this technique has obviously has a diﬀerent function
to the codes developed for invisible technique. What are the characteristics of this alternative technique?