As reengineering and downsizing become a way of life, the training and development (T&D) department is a target for reductions and outsourcing. Parts or all of the function are being outsourced at an amazing pace with several factors driving the actions. This is partially because management does not always believe training and development contributes directly to the bottom line. Still T&D costs continue to escalate. Some executives perceive they can control training costs, quality, and effectiveness by using expertise from outside sources. Outsourcing can involve any type of program, activity, service, or function. At the extreme, outsourcing may include the management of the entire training function, including needs assessment, design and development, delivery, and evaluation.