chapter  15
Paper and Media Characteristics � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � �
Pages 20

Machine-Made Papers At the bottom of the quality scale are the machine-made papers designed for office use and commercial litho printing. Made with pounded wood pulp and a certain amount of recycled paper, alkali agents are used to chemically break down the raw materials. Mass-produced artist’s papers contain a more favorable ratio of cotton materials. Techniques in processing pulp are varied, but all use force, heat, and chemicals to help separate the fibers. The finished pulp is funneled through a narrow slot and drawn out across a rolling belt, which ensures a continuous web or roll of paper with all of the fibers lying in the same direction.