From electromagnetic induction theory, we know that the average emf induced in a conductor, moving through a magnetic ﬁ eld, is given by
e B v sin volt [ ] 1
Where B is the ﬂ ux density of the ﬁ eld (in tesla) is the effective length of conductor (in metre) v is the velocity of the conductor (in metre/s) u is the angle at which the conductor ‘ cuts ’ the lines of magnetic ﬂ ux (in degrees or radians)
i.e. v sin u is the component of velocity at right angles to the ﬂ ux.