chapter
Open excavations, 242 doors, 361 Open fireplaces, 695–703 roofs, 426 Open riser stairs, 593–5, 605 windows, 339 Open suspended ceiling, 623 Perimeter trench excavation, 243 Open web beam, 405 Permanent exclusion of water, 279, Openings in walls: 284–8 arches, 332–4 Permanent formwork, 377 heads, 335, 338 Permitted development, 40 jambs, 336, 338 Perspective drawing, 25 sills, 337–8 Phenol formaldehyde, 422, 635 support, 332 Pigment, 624 threshold, 338, 535 Pile: Oriel window, 349 beams, 226 Oriented strand board, 634 caps, 213, 226 Orthographic projection, 23 classification, 209 Out-of-service crane condition, 172 testing, 226 Output and cycle times, 149 types, 210 Overcladding, 497 Piled basements, 246 Overhead and forklift trucks, 161 Piled foundations, 209–26 Piling: Pad foundation, 195, 206, 382, 407, contiguous, 285 416, 418 hammers, 224–5 Pad foundation design, 197 helmets, 217, 221 Pad template, 111 rigs, 217, 220–1 Paint defects, 627 steel sheet, 267–8 Paints and painting, 624–6 Pillar tap, 667 Panelled suspended ceiling, 620, 622 Pin or hinge joint, 417 Parallel lay cable, 397 Pitch pine, 631 Parane pine, 631 Pitched roofs, 428–35 Parapet wall, 317 Pitched trusses, 471–2 Partially preformed pile, 221 Pivot window, 348 Particle board, 566, 634 Placing concrete, 177 Partitions: Plain tiles and tiling, 437–8, 441–2 demountable, 551–2 Planer, 628 load-bearing, 548 Plank and pot floor, 585 metal stud, 550 Planning application, 40–4 non-load-bearing, 548–52 Planning grid, 45 timber stud, 549 Planning supervisor, 48 Passenger hoist, 163 Plant: Passenger vehicles, 159 bulldozer, 150 Passive earth pressures, 230 concreting, 177–82 Patent glazing, 472–3, 486–7 considerations, 147 Patent scaffolding, 130 costing, 148 Paved areas, 644 cranes, 165–76 Paving, 117, 120, 122 dumpers, 160, 180 Paving flags, 122 excavators, 154–8, 245 Pedestal, 587 forklift trucks, 161 Pendentive dome, 10, 478 graders, 152 Penetration test, 77, 105 hoists, 162–3 Percussion bored piling, 210–1 scrapers, 151 Performance requirements: tractor shovel, 153
doors, 361 roofs, 426 windows, 339 Perimeter trench excavation, 243 Permanent exclusion of water, 279,
Pages 1

Open excavations, 242 Open fireplaces, 695-703 Open riser stairs, 593-5, 605 Open suspended ceiling, 623 Open web beam, 405 Openings in walls: arches, 332-4 heads, 335, 338 jambs, 336, 338 sills, 337-8 support, 332 threshold, 338, 535