chapter  12
The changing shape of organisation
Pages 15

This book has taken the theme that if people are to make an effective contribution at

work, they need a role that allows them to work well with others. In the pre-industrial

past, such a role scarcely needed thinking about as it was governed by factors that

were largely physical such as gender, age, or race, and so was beyond the control of

the individual. At a later stage the immediate visible factors that signified the role

became less conspicuous. But there were cues that could be acquired and displayed,

such as certificates that entitled or privileged a person to practise a trade, often

reinforced by distinctive clothing that would confirm the role in the eyes of the

onlooker.