Planning is widespread in businesses of all sizes. Larger companies have more formalized planning processes, but smaller companies also perform planning essentials. A plan can be thought of as a set of decisions about what a company wants to achieve and how it is going to achieve it. The essence of a plan is, therefore, a goal with accompanying strategy and tactics. The goal deﬁ nes what the company wants to achieve, whereas the strategy and tactics set out how the goal will be achieved. A marketing plan sets out the marketing objectives that a company wants to achieve and the strategy and tactics that will be used to reach the objectives.