This chapter aims to assist local and state law enforcement officers in understanding and the investigation of illegal sports bookmaking organizations. The Mafia has evolved in the United States since the late 1800s when it was involved in extortion. The federal government was the first to spearhead the use of the Racketeer Influenced and Corrupt Organizations Act as a way to take the profit out of crime. The Kefauver Committee and the McClellan Committee were investigative panels in the US Senate; their task included looking into additional aspects of organized crime. The racing form is one of many information sources that lists the different races at the various tracks around the country. A layoff is any bet made from one bookmaker to another with the intent of offsetting or eliminating the size of the potential loss caused by a book that is out of balance.