Design and Management of Constructed Ponds: Minimizing Environmental Hazards
Constructed ponds are a typical part of the drainage system, and are designed for flood control, irrigation reservoirs, aesthetics, and/or wildlife enhancement. Constructed ponds can be designed for water quality control without compromising flood control, wildlife habitat, or aesthetic functions. The best shape for water quality improvement is to have the inlet and outlet separated by a fairly large distance, construct two or more deep portions separated by shallow berms or wetlands (so called multicelled ponds), and to have sufficient depth so that macrophytes do not fill the pond. A variety of geosynthetic membranes, expansive clays, and concrete products are available to create water-tight liners for the pond bottom. Pond volume divided by the outflow rate defines water residence time. Since drowning may occur in any water depth if a person panics, limitations on pond depth for safety may not be necessary. The golf course wash area, used for cleaning mowers and chemical sprayers, poses a potential environmental hazard.