Decision-Making Factors for Management of Fire Ants and White Grubs in Turfgrass
Fire ants and white grubs are among the most serious subterranean pests of managed turfgrasses. This chapter discusses aspects of their identification, biology, and behavior, and factors affecting timing of control for both pest groups. Red imported fire ants management programs must be designed for a specific site giving consideration to the combination of control tactics that will provide the desired level of control, be affordable, and the least harmful to the environment. White grubs are the immatures of several species of scarabaeid beetles. They are recognized as being one of the most difficult groups of turfgrass pests to manage. Scarabaeid grubs feed on the roots of all species of commonly used turfgrasses causing irregular dead patches that can be lifted or rolled back like a carpet. IPM decision-making factors fall into two broad categories: pest population dynamics and management factors.