A Case Study of the Impact of the Soil Environment on Insect/Pathogen Interactions: Scarabs in Turfgrass
There is considerable interest in using microbial insecticides, including bacteria, entomophagous fungi, and entomogenous nematodes as biological control agents against the scarab pest complex. Because different classes of microbial control agents have different intrinsic modes of movement, invasion, and reproductive ability there is a need to understand more fully the interactions among the target scarab population, the specific control agent, and the soil environment. In this chapter we will integrate several important ecological characteristics of entomopathogenic nematodes, fungi and bacteria, as well as short residual insecticides, and Japanese beetle and European chafer larvae. Based or specific ecological characteristics, some suggestions are offered for treatment strategies that afford the best hope of consistent control for various combinations of larval phenological stage, control agent, and environmental conditions.