Nematodes as Bioinsecticides in Turf and Ornamentals
This chapter addresses the characteristics of nematode-based products and the significant progress achieved in the commercialization of these nematodes. It summarizes the overall characteristics of the commercially available entomopathogenic nematode-based products in turf and ornamentals. Steinemematids and heterorhabditids have been proven efficacious against various soil and cryptic-inhabiting insects of ornamentals and turf. These nematodes differ in virulence to specific host, tolerance to adverse environmental conditions, ability to seek out host, and behavior in the soil. It should be emphasized that nematodes are particularly attractive as applied or introduced components of integrated management systems, because they have little or no impact on predacious or parasitic arthropods and other fauna that influence populations of pest species. Maintaining a high quality of the final product is the most important factor determining the successful market introduction of a product. For this reason, the development of a quality control program is an essential step in the commercialization of nematodes.