chapter  9
13 Pages


There are three general motivations/functions/justifications of historical apology evident in Japanese state apologies: (1) repair of relationship (relationship); (2) learning from history/self-reflection (political); and (3) affirmation of moral principle (transcendent). We have also noted crisis apologies as having a different motivation from that of historical apologies that are the subject of this study, of being motivated by a public outcry that requires immediate attention.