Accusations, accusers, and audience
Our understanding of apology begins with accusation, that is, with the nature of the wrongdoing that the apology addresses (Ryan 1982, 1988). Are the charges major or minor, multiple or single, unprecedented or not? How reliable and verifiable are the charges? We must also consider the accusers, what their objectives might be and where the accusations come from. Finally, who is the audience for an apology and what is the relationship between victim, apologist, and audience? This chapter reviews the background and context of Japanese apologies for World War II.