chapter  1
15 Pages


In the last three decades, several studies have focused on Gyôki and the early Buddhist monastic establishment. However, until Inoue Kaoru’s study entitled Gyôki appeared in 1959, no scholarly works narrated Gyôki’s life.1 Inoue’s classic addressed some of the fundamental questions that would be considered in subsequent studies, such as the scale of Gyôki’s charitable projects and why the imperial court seemed to have altered its confrontational policy toward this rebellious monk in the middle of the eighth century. Although more recent studies have dealt with these issues, they are by no means fully resolved.