chapter  4
The European crusades
Pages 30

Sagrajas 1107/08 Crusade proclaimed against the Wends 1118 Conquest of Zaragoza by Alfonso I of Aragón 1147-49 Wendish crusade; military campaigns under King Afonso

Henriques I of Portugal, King Alfonso VII of CastileLeón, and Count Raymond Berengar IV of Barcelona

1168 Conquest of Rügen by the Danes 1195 July 9: Almohad victory over the Christians at Alarcos 1199 Crusades proclaimed against Livonia and Markward of

Annweiler 1209-29 Albigensian crusades 1212 July 16: Christian victory over the Almohads at Las Navas

de Tolosa 1228-48 Conquest of Mallorca (1228) and Valencia (1238) by King

Jaime I of Aragón; conquest of Córdoba (1236) and Seville (1248) by Ferdinand III of Castile-León. Christian expansion to the Algarve coast

1230-85 Conquest of Prussia by the Teutonic Knights 1239 Crusade proclaimed against Emperor Frederick II

(repeated in 1244) 1242 April 5: defeat of the Teutonic Knights by Alexander

Nevskii at Lake Peipus 1260 July: defeat of a Danish-Swedish-German army by the

Lithuanians at Durben 1265-68 War for the throne of Sicily between Charles I of Anjou

and the Hohenstaufen 1282-1302 War over Sicily between Charles I of Anjou and Aragón

(1285: crusade against Aragón) 1302 on Several crusade proclamations against Italian cities 1307 Crusade against the Apostolici under Fra Dolcino

1386 Polish-Lithuanian union 1410 July 15: Poles and Lithuanians defeat the Teutonic

Knights at Tannenberg/Grunwald 1420-34 Hussite crusades, several defeats of the Catholics 1454-66 Thirteen-year war between the Teutonic Knights and the

Prussian League; ends 1466 with the Second Peace of Thorn

1465-67 Renewed crusade against the Hussites 1492 January 2: Granada surrenders to the Christians. Exile or

forced baptism of the Spanish Jews and Muslims 1525 Secularization of the Teutonic Knights

Why should the Iberian Peninsula, the Baltic, and wars against heretics appear in a book on the crusades? Wasn’t Palestine the goal of all crusaders? The crusades par excellence were indeed those waged in the Near East-modern historians and medieval people agree on this point. But the Latin Church also offered indulgences for fighting against other opponents, and in these cases, too, troops were collected from different lands and pledged themselves to the campaign with an oath. Therefore, in this chapter three crusade zones will be briefly presented. Most similar to the crusader lordships of the Near East was the situation on the Iberian Peninsula. There, too, the fight was against Muslims; there, too, three religions lived together in a single region under Latin rule. Although conflict with the Muslims did not, as has been asserted, form the “red thread” of Spanish and Portuguese history, it did serve to make the Christian lordships west of the Pyrenees distinctive from the rest of Latin Europe. In the following section I will provide a short overview of the Hispanic lordships of the Middle Ages and present the so-called reconquista, dividing it into two phases (711-1095 and 1095-1492). The goal of the section is to show similarities, differences, and interactions between the crusades in the Near East and those in what is now Spain and Portugal.