Taking of Tyre c. 1130-86 William of Tyre 1153 Conquest of Ascalon 1154 Imad ad-Din Zengi’s conquest of Damascus 1158-76 Byzantine protectorate over the “crusader states” c. 1160-63 King Amalric I of Jerusalem issues the Assise sur la ligece 1160 or 1165 John of Würzburg’s journey to Palestine c. 1168-70 Benjamin of Tudela’s journey to Palestine 1181 Union of the Maronite and Latin Churches 1184 Ibn Jubair’s journey to Palestine 1191 Conquest of Cyprus; becomes Latin kingdom in 1197 1198 Foundation of the kingdom of Armenia 1204 Conquest of Constantinople by Latin crusaders; creation
of a Latin Empire 1216-28 Episcopate of Jacques de Vitry in Acre 1219 Meeting between St Francis and Sultan al-Kamil 1229-43 Rebellion against Hohenstaufen rule in the kingdom of
Jerusalem c. 1240-44 Composition of the Livre des Assises de la Cour de
bourgeois 1247 Second Rule of the Carmelite Order 1256-59 War of St Sabas 1291 Dissolution of all Latin Church foundations in the Holy
Land c. 1335 Establishment of the custodia Terrae Sanctae
The third chapter of this book is not concerned with the crusades in the East, but rather with the states to which they gave birth. These are often called “crusader states,” although the term suggests a higher degree of administrative coherence, political autonomy, and legal selfunderstanding than these creations really possessed. So I will only use the term in quotes in the following discussion, instead for the most part substituting the term “crusader lordships.” In the following three sections I will present their constitutional and economic, ecclesiastical, and socio-historical aspects. The ﬁrst subsection will begin by providing a broad outline of the crusader lordships’ political development, after which we will examine the ruling houses of the various crusader territories and their connections to the monarchical world of Europe. The theme of the third subsection is state-building and the role of the aristocracy. This section on secular rule will close with an overview of the economic signiﬁcance of the crusader lordships, the rights of Italian traders in them, and the political weight of the Levantine states.