Traumatic brain injury and substance abuse: A review and analysis of the literature
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a significant health problem and a major cause of disability and death (Marion, 1998). Substance abuse is a major problem for individuals with TBI, occurring more frequently than in the general population (Kolakowsky-Hayner et al., 1999; Kreutzer, Marwitz, & Witol, 1995). Young adult males have the highest incidence of TBI (Abrams, Barker, Haffey, &
© 2003 Psychology Press Ltd http://www.tandf.co.uk/journals/pp/ 09602011.html
Nelson, 1993; Kolakowsky-Hayner & Kreutzer, 2001) and the highest incidence of substance abuse (Johnson et al., 1977; Miller & Cisin, 1983). A comprehensive review study (Corrigan, 1995) indicated that approximately two thirds of individuals with TBI have a history of substance abuse pre-injury, and one third to one half of individuals hospitalised are intoxicated at the time of injury. Research suggests that those who were intoxicated at the time of injury are more likely to be heavier drinkers both pre-and post-injury (Kreutzer et al., 1996b).