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Post-traumatic stress disorder and traumatic brain injury: A review of causal mechanisms, assessment, and treatment

Emotional disorders seem common after brain injury (see Williams, Evans, & Fleminger, this issue). However, the psychological impact of the trauma event itself (as opposed to the brain injury), has only received attention relatively recently. In this paper we examine the prevalence of post-traumatic stress

© 2003 Psychology Press Ltd http://www.tandf.co.uk/journals/pp/ 09602011.html

DOI: 10.1080/09602010244000453

Correspondence should be addressed to Tom McMillan, Department of Psychological Medicine, Academic Centre, Gartnavel Royal Hospital, 1055 Great Western Road, Glasgow G12 OXH, UK. Tel: (44) 141 211 3927, Email: [email protected]

disorder (PTSD) after traumatic brain injury (TBI), how it could be caused, the evidence for it occurring, risk factors, and implications for intervention and service demands. In the first section, we provide context in an overview of factors associated with cause, maintenance, and treatment of PTSD in general, before addressing issues associated with the assessment and management of PTSD after TBI.