chapter  8
Labor in early modern Japan and beyond
Pages 14

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Industrial expansion affected nearly every aspect of the Tokugawa socio-economy at nearly every level of society. The effects of industrial expansion and capitalism appeared in national and local government policies and in regional demographic changes. These effects included the emergence of commercial, craft and industrial enterprises of varying size and structure, as well as their competition for both full-time contract labor and part-time casual labor. The use of farmers as casual labor created further opportunities for agricultural wage labor and capitalism in agriculture.