chapter  2
Stem family and lineage businesses
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Businesses in Tokugawa Japan were generally family businesses. Indeed, it is difficult to find an enterprise that was not a family business or became one eventually. This chapter examines and discusses the organization of Tokugawa enterprises on the framework of the Japanese stem family and lineage and the labor hierarchy within this organization. The stem family business adapted the structure and survival strategies of the Japanese stem family to corporate needs. Therefore, the chapter begins with a description of the stem family, followed by a description and discussion of the stem family business and its variations for smaller and larger enterprises and artisan stem family and lineage businesses. This organization formed a framework that was highly visible, because it was based upon the stem family and easily adaptable to the needs of manufacturing.