chapter  3
Labor organization in industry
Pages 14

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Tokugawa enterprises employed a combination of contract and casual labor that matched their needs for skilled and semi-skilled or unskilled labor. These needs were determined in part by the production process, the organization of production labor, and the size of the business. The combination of contract and casual labor formed a continuum. At one end of the continuum, manufacturers relied entirely upon contract labor and, at the other end, they relied almost entirely upon casual labor for the production process.