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Forms of dance subject to considerable social criticism included the Charleston, jitterbugging, rock’n’roll in the 1950s, the twist in the 1960s, and disco dancing in the 1970s. Adorno saw jitterbugging, a popular and flamboyant form of dance in the 1940s, as a ‘stylized’ dance style whose performers had ‘convulsive aspects reminiscent of St. Vitus’s dance or the reflexes of mutilated animals’ (1991:46). As Negus (1996) observes, such responses reflected a distaste for overt expressions of sexuality, a racist fear of ‘civilized’ behaviour being undermined by ‘primitive rhythms’, and a concern that young people are being manipulated and effected by forms of mass-crowd psychology (see effects).