chapter  7
21 Pages

Civil society and democratisation

From the mid-to late 1970s, dictatorial systems began collapsing one after another, first in Southern Europe, then in South America in the early and mid-1980s and in Eastern Europe in the late 1980s and the early 1990s. Eventually, national movements aimed at instituting democracy also bore fruit in a number of African countries – not just in South Africa but in the continent’s Francophone countries – and in South Korea. Even in the Middle East, a bastian of ‘authoritarian holdouts’, demands for political accountability and democratic representation began to dominate the national discourse in Morocco, Algeria, Egypt, Jordan, Iran and elsewhere. As more countries joined the ranks of democracies, Professor Samuel Huntington’s declaration that a ‘third wave’ of democratisation was under way was becoming prophetic.1