12An integrative framework for pre-departure preparationHILARY HARRIS AND CHRIS BREWSTER
The growth of international business at a time when most international organizations are under increasing cost pressures has led these organizations to take a sharp look at their policies for expatriates. As discussed in Chapter 1, there is some evidence from the USA that multinational enterprises (MNEs) have reacted by trying to cut the number of expatriates that they employ (Kobrin 1988). Although there are some occasionally quite spectacular cases of this happening for European MNEs, it is likely that the overall number of expatriates from these organizations will continue to grow (Brewster 1993). The latest evidence from the USA seems to show another resurgence in the use of expatriates by US MNEs (Windham International and NFTC 1997).