The Isolation Hospitals Acts, 1893, 1901, and the Notification Acts, 1889, 1899, and other legislation resulted in the, often reluctant, establishment of
institutions by far smaller local authorities in England and Wales. The situation was different, in some respects, in Scotland and Ireland, partly because the population was smaller and more widely scattered, although large cities such as Glasgow, Edinburgh and Dublin met the need for fever hospitals at an early date. However, in the nineteenth century, and in some cases beyond, many patients in Britain with infectious diseases were accommodated in workhouses, or poorhouses, most of which later had infirmaries. Wherever they were to be found, due to the associations of poverty, and fear of the disease, fever patients were stigmatised, and in some areas, pauperised. It is clear that fever hospitals could not have coped in epidemics without Poor Law infirmaries, which frequently took excess patients.