### Modeling, Simulation, and Equipment Operations

### Modeling, Simulation, and Equipment Operations

#### Get Citation

Bridging the gap between theory and application, this reference demonstrates the operational mechanisms, modeling, and simulation of equipment for the combustion and gasification of solid fuels. **Solid Fuels Combustion and Gasification: Modeling, Simulation, and Equipment Operation** clearly illustrates procedures to improve and optimize the design of future units and the operation of existing industrial systems with recommendations and guidelines from a seasoned professional in the field.

*Supplies an abundance of examples, models, and exercises for step-by-step instruction on the modeling and simulation of combustion and gasification machinery*

*Of critical importance to the industrial and design engineer, ***Solid Fuels Combustion and Gasification**…

**Marcio L. de Souza-Santos** is Professor of Mechanical Engineering, State University at Campinas, São Paulo, Brazil. The author of numerous professional publications, he holds several patents and is a member of the American Chemical Society, the Brazilian Society of Chemical Engineering, and the advisory committees of several national and international meetings on energy. An experienced consultant, he has worked for respected organizations such as the Institute of Gas Technology, Chicago, Illinois. He received the B.Sc. (1973) and M.Sc. (1981) degrees in chemical engineering from the University of São Paulo, Brazil, and the Ph.D. (1987) in chemical engineering from the University of Sheffield, England.

*Basic Remarks on Modeling and Simulation*

Experiment and Simulation

A Classification for Mathematical Models

Exercises

*Solid Fuels*

Introduction

Physical Properties

Chemical Properties

Thermal Treatment

Gasification and Combustion

Exercises

*Equipment and Processes*

Introduction

Elements of Gas-Solid Systems

Moving Bed

Fluidized Bed

Suspension or Pneumatic Transport

Some Aspects Related to Fuels

*Basic Calculations*

Introduction

Computation of Some Basic Parameters

Tips on Calculations

Observations

Exercises

*Zero-Dimensional Models*

Introduction

Basic Equations

Species Balance and Exiting Composition

Useful Relations

Summary for 0D-S Model

Flame Temperature

Exercises

*Introduction to One-Dimensional, Steady-State Models*

Definitions

Fundamental Equations

Final Comments

Exercises

*Moving-Bed Combustion and Gasification Model*

Introduction

The Model

Exercises

*Chemical Reactions*

Homogeneous/Heterogeneous Reactions

Numbering of Chemical Components

A System of Chemical Reactions

Stoichiometry

Kinetics

Final Notes

Exercises

*Heterogeneous Reactions*

Introduction

General Form of the Problem

Generalized Treatment

Other Heterogeneous Reactions

Exercises

*Drying and Devolatilization*

Drying

Devolatilization

Exercises

*Auxiliary Equations and Basic Calculations*

Introduction

Total Production Rates

Thiele Modulus

Diffusivities

Reactivity

Core Dimensions

Heat and Mass Transfer Coefficients

Energy-Related Parameters

A Few Immediate Applications

Pressure Losses

Exercises

*Moving-Bed Simulation Program and Results*

Introduction

From Modeling to Simulation Program

Samples of Results

Exercises

*Fluidized-Bed Combustion and Gasification Model*

Introduction

The Mathematical Model

Boundary Conditions

Exercises

*Fluidization Dynamics*

Introduction

Splitting of Gas Injected into a Bed

Bubble Characteristics and Behavior

Circulation of Solid Particles

Entrainment and Elutriation

Particle Size Distribution

Recycling of Particles

Segregation

Areas and Volumes at Freeboard Section

Mass and Volume Fractions of Solids

Further Studies

Exercises

*Auxiliary Parameters Related to Fluidized-Bed Processes*

Introduction

Mass Transfers

Heat Transfers

Parameters Related to Reaction Rates

*Fluidized-Bed Simulation Program and Results*

The Block Diagram

Samples of Results

Exercises

*Appendix A: The Fundamental Equations of Transport Phenomena*

*Appendix B: Notes on Thermodynamics*

Heat and Work

Chemical Equilibrium Equation

Specific Heat

Correction for Departure from Ideal Behavior

Generalized 0D-S Models

Heat Values

Representative Formation Enthalpy of a Solid Fuel

*Appendix C: Possible Improvements on Modeling Heterogeneous Reactions*

General Mass Balance for a Particle

Generalized Energy Balance for a Particle

*Appendix D: Improvements on Various Aspects*

Rate of Particles Circulation in the Fluidized Bed

Improvements on the Fluidized-Bed Equipment Simulator (FBES)

*Appendix E: Basics of Turbulent Flow*

Momentum Transfer

Heat and Mass Transfers

Reaction Kinetics

*Appendix F: Classifications of Modeling for Bubbling Fluidized-Bed Equipment*

Main Aspects

*Appendix G: Basic Techniques of Kinetics Determination*

*References*

*Index*

Bridging the gap between theory and application, this reference demonstrates the operational mechanisms, modeling, and simulation of equipment for the combustion and gasification of solid fuels. **Solid Fuels Combustion and Gasification: Modeling, Simulation, and Equipment Operation** clearly illustrates procedures to improve and optimize the design of future units and the operation of existing industrial systems with recommendations and guidelines from a seasoned professional in the field.

*Supplies an abundance of examples, models, and exercises for step-by-step instruction on the modeling and simulation of combustion and gasification machinery*

*Of critical importance to the industrial and design engineer, ***Solid Fuels Combustion and Gasification**…

**Marcio L. de Souza-Santos** is Professor of Mechanical Engineering, State University at Campinas, São Paulo, Brazil. The author of numerous professional publications, he holds several patents and is a member of the American Chemical Society, the Brazilian Society of Chemical Engineering, and the advisory committees of several national and international meetings on energy. An experienced consultant, he has worked for respected organizations such as the Institute of Gas Technology, Chicago, Illinois. He received the B.Sc. (1973) and M.Sc. (1981) degrees in chemical engineering from the University of São Paulo, Brazil, and the Ph.D. (1987) in chemical engineering from the University of Sheffield, England.

*Basic Remarks on Modeling and Simulation*

Experiment and Simulation

A Classification for Mathematical Models

Exercises

*Solid Fuels*

Introduction

Physical Properties

Chemical Properties

Thermal Treatment

Gasification and Combustion

Exercises

*Equipment and Processes*

Introduction

Elements of Gas-Solid Systems

Moving Bed

Fluidized Bed

Suspension or Pneumatic Transport

Some Aspects Related to Fuels

*Basic Calculations*

Introduction

Computation of Some Basic Parameters

Tips on Calculations

Observations

Exercises

*Zero-Dimensional Models*

Introduction

Basic Equations

Species Balance and Exiting Composition

Useful Relations

Summary for 0D-S Model

Flame Temperature

Exercises

*Introduction to One-Dimensional, Steady-State Models*

Definitions

Fundamental Equations

Final Comments

Exercises

*Moving-Bed Combustion and Gasification Model*

Introduction

The Model

Exercises

*Chemical Reactions*

Homogeneous/Heterogeneous Reactions

Numbering of Chemical Components

A System of Chemical Reactions

Stoichiometry

Kinetics

Final Notes

Exercises

*Heterogeneous Reactions*

Introduction

General Form of the Problem

Generalized Treatment

Other Heterogeneous Reactions

Exercises

*Drying and Devolatilization*

Drying

Devolatilization

Exercises

*Auxiliary Equations and Basic Calculations*

Introduction

Total Production Rates

Thiele Modulus

Diffusivities

Reactivity

Core Dimensions

Heat and Mass Transfer Coefficients

Energy-Related Parameters

A Few Immediate Applications

Pressure Losses

Exercises

*Moving-Bed Simulation Program and Results*

Introduction

From Modeling to Simulation Program

Samples of Results

Exercises

*Fluidized-Bed Combustion and Gasification Model*

Introduction

The Mathematical Model

Boundary Conditions

Exercises

*Fluidization Dynamics*

Introduction

Splitting of Gas Injected into a Bed

Bubble Characteristics and Behavior

Circulation of Solid Particles

Entrainment and Elutriation

Particle Size Distribution

Recycling of Particles

Segregation

Areas and Volumes at Freeboard Section

Mass and Volume Fractions of Solids

Further Studies

Exercises

*Auxiliary Parameters Related to Fluidized-Bed Processes*

Introduction

Mass Transfers

Heat Transfers

Parameters Related to Reaction Rates

*Fluidized-Bed Simulation Program and Results*

The Block Diagram

Samples of Results

Exercises

*Appendix A: The Fundamental Equations of Transport Phenomena*

*Appendix B: Notes on Thermodynamics*

Heat and Work

Chemical Equilibrium Equation

Specific Heat

Correction for Departure from Ideal Behavior

Generalized 0D-S Models

Heat Values

Representative Formation Enthalpy of a Solid Fuel

*Appendix C: Possible Improvements on Modeling Heterogeneous Reactions*

General Mass Balance for a Particle

Generalized Energy Balance for a Particle

*Appendix D: Improvements on Various Aspects*

Rate of Particles Circulation in the Fluidized Bed

Improvements on the Fluidized-Bed Equipment Simulator (FBES)

*Appendix E: Basics of Turbulent Flow*

Momentum Transfer

Heat and Mass Transfers

Reaction Kinetics

*Appendix F: Classifications of Modeling for Bubbling Fluidized-Bed Equipment*

Main Aspects

*Appendix G: Basic Techniques of Kinetics Determination*

*References*

*Index*

Bridging the gap between theory and application, this reference demonstrates the operational mechanisms, modeling, and simulation of equipment for the combustion and gasification of solid fuels. **Solid Fuels Combustion and Gasification: Modeling, Simulation, and Equipment Operation** clearly illustrates procedures to improve and optimize the design of future units and the operation of existing industrial systems with recommendations and guidelines from a seasoned professional in the field.

*Supplies an abundance of examples, models, and exercises for step-by-step instruction on the modeling and simulation of combustion and gasification machinery*

*Of critical importance to the industrial and design engineer, ***Solid Fuels Combustion and Gasification**…

**Marcio L. de Souza-Santos** is Professor of Mechanical Engineering, State University at Campinas, São Paulo, Brazil. The author of numerous professional publications, he holds several patents and is a member of the American Chemical Society, the Brazilian Society of Chemical Engineering, and the advisory committees of several national and international meetings on energy. An experienced consultant, he has worked for respected organizations such as the Institute of Gas Technology, Chicago, Illinois. He received the B.Sc. (1973) and M.Sc. (1981) degrees in chemical engineering from the University of São Paulo, Brazil, and the Ph.D. (1987) in chemical engineering from the University of Sheffield, England.

*Basic Remarks on Modeling and Simulation*

Experiment and Simulation

A Classification for Mathematical Models

Exercises

*Solid Fuels*

Introduction

Physical Properties

Chemical Properties

Thermal Treatment

Gasification and Combustion

Exercises

*Equipment and Processes*

Introduction

Elements of Gas-Solid Systems

Moving Bed

Fluidized Bed

Suspension or Pneumatic Transport

Some Aspects Related to Fuels

*Basic Calculations*

Introduction

Computation of Some Basic Parameters

Tips on Calculations

Observations

Exercises

*Zero-Dimensional Models*

Introduction

Basic Equations

Species Balance and Exiting Composition

Useful Relations

Summary for 0D-S Model

Flame Temperature

Exercises

*Introduction to One-Dimensional, Steady-State Models*

Definitions

Fundamental Equations

Final Comments

Exercises

*Moving-Bed Combustion and Gasification Model*

Introduction

The Model

Exercises

*Chemical Reactions*

Homogeneous/Heterogeneous Reactions

Numbering of Chemical Components

A System of Chemical Reactions

Stoichiometry

Kinetics

Final Notes

Exercises

*Heterogeneous Reactions*

Introduction

General Form of the Problem

Generalized Treatment

Other Heterogeneous Reactions

Exercises

*Drying and Devolatilization*

Drying

Devolatilization

Exercises

*Auxiliary Equations and Basic Calculations*

Introduction

Total Production Rates

Thiele Modulus

Diffusivities

Reactivity

Core Dimensions

Heat and Mass Transfer Coefficients

Energy-Related Parameters

A Few Immediate Applications

Pressure Losses

Exercises

*Moving-Bed Simulation Program and Results*

Introduction

From Modeling to Simulation Program

Samples of Results

Exercises

*Fluidized-Bed Combustion and Gasification Model*

Introduction

The Mathematical Model

Boundary Conditions

Exercises

*Fluidization Dynamics*

Introduction

Splitting of Gas Injected into a Bed

Bubble Characteristics and Behavior

Circulation of Solid Particles

Entrainment and Elutriation

Particle Size Distribution

Recycling of Particles

Segregation

Areas and Volumes at Freeboard Section

Mass and Volume Fractions of Solids

Further Studies

Exercises

*Auxiliary Parameters Related to Fluidized-Bed Processes*

Introduction

Mass Transfers

Heat Transfers

Parameters Related to Reaction Rates

*Fluidized-Bed Simulation Program and Results*

The Block Diagram

Samples of Results

Exercises

*Appendix A: The Fundamental Equations of Transport Phenomena*

*Appendix B: Notes on Thermodynamics*

Heat and Work

Chemical Equilibrium Equation

Specific Heat

Correction for Departure from Ideal Behavior

Generalized 0D-S Models

Heat Values

Representative Formation Enthalpy of a Solid Fuel

*Appendix C: Possible Improvements on Modeling Heterogeneous Reactions*

General Mass Balance for a Particle

Generalized Energy Balance for a Particle

*Appendix D: Improvements on Various Aspects*

Rate of Particles Circulation in the Fluidized Bed

Improvements on the Fluidized-Bed Equipment Simulator (FBES)

*Appendix E: Basics of Turbulent Flow*

Momentum Transfer

Heat and Mass Transfers

Reaction Kinetics

*Appendix F: Classifications of Modeling for Bubbling Fluidized-Bed Equipment*

Main Aspects

*Appendix G: Basic Techniques of Kinetics Determination*

*References*

*Index*

**Solid Fuels Combustion and Gasification: Modeling, Simulation, and Equipment Operation** clearly illustrates procedures to improve and optimize the design of future units and the operation of existing industrial systems with recommendations and guidelines from a seasoned professional in the field.

*Of critical importance to the industrial and design engineer, ***Solid Fuels Combustion and Gasification**…

**Marcio L. de Souza-Santos** is Professor of Mechanical Engineering, State University at Campinas, São Paulo, Brazil. The author of numerous professional publications, he holds several patents and is a member of the American Chemical Society, the Brazilian Society of Chemical Engineering, and the advisory committees of several national and international meetings on energy. An experienced consultant, he has worked for respected organizations such as the Institute of Gas Technology, Chicago, Illinois. He received the B.Sc. (1973) and M.Sc. (1981) degrees in chemical engineering from the University of São Paulo, Brazil, and the Ph.D. (1987) in chemical engineering from the University of Sheffield, England.

*Basic Remarks on Modeling and Simulation*

Experiment and Simulation

A Classification for Mathematical Models

Exercises

*Solid Fuels*

Introduction

Physical Properties

Chemical Properties

Thermal Treatment

Gasification and Combustion

Exercises

*Equipment and Processes*

Introduction

Elements of Gas-Solid Systems

Moving Bed

Fluidized Bed

Suspension or Pneumatic Transport

Some Aspects Related to Fuels

*Basic Calculations*

Introduction

Computation of Some Basic Parameters

Tips on Calculations

Observations

Exercises

*Zero-Dimensional Models*

Introduction

Basic Equations

Species Balance and Exiting Composition

Useful Relations

Summary for 0D-S Model

Flame Temperature

Exercises

*Introduction to One-Dimensional, Steady-State Models*

Definitions

Fundamental Equations

Final Comments

Exercises

*Moving-Bed Combustion and Gasification Model*

Introduction

The Model

Exercises

*Chemical Reactions*

Homogeneous/Heterogeneous Reactions

Numbering of Chemical Components

A System of Chemical Reactions

Stoichiometry

Kinetics

Final Notes

Exercises

*Heterogeneous Reactions*

Introduction

General Form of the Problem

Generalized Treatment

Other Heterogeneous Reactions

Exercises

*Drying and Devolatilization*

Drying

Devolatilization

Exercises

*Auxiliary Equations and Basic Calculations*

Introduction

Total Production Rates

Thiele Modulus

Diffusivities

Reactivity

Core Dimensions

Heat and Mass Transfer Coefficients

Energy-Related Parameters

A Few Immediate Applications

Pressure Losses

Exercises

*Moving-Bed Simulation Program and Results*

Introduction

From Modeling to Simulation Program

Samples of Results

Exercises

*Fluidized-Bed Combustion and Gasification Model*

Introduction

The Mathematical Model

Boundary Conditions

Exercises

*Fluidization Dynamics*

Introduction

Splitting of Gas Injected into a Bed

Bubble Characteristics and Behavior

Circulation of Solid Particles

Entrainment and Elutriation

Particle Size Distribution

Recycling of Particles

Segregation

Areas and Volumes at Freeboard Section

Mass and Volume Fractions of Solids

Further Studies

Exercises

*Auxiliary Parameters Related to Fluidized-Bed Processes*

Introduction

Mass Transfers

Heat Transfers

Parameters Related to Reaction Rates

*Fluidized-Bed Simulation Program and Results*

The Block Diagram

Samples of Results

Exercises

*Appendix A: The Fundamental Equations of Transport Phenomena*

*Appendix B: Notes on Thermodynamics*

Heat and Work

Chemical Equilibrium Equation

Specific Heat

Correction for Departure from Ideal Behavior

Generalized 0D-S Models

Heat Values

Representative Formation Enthalpy of a Solid Fuel

*Appendix C: Possible Improvements on Modeling Heterogeneous Reactions*

General Mass Balance for a Particle

Generalized Energy Balance for a Particle

*Appendix D: Improvements on Various Aspects*

Rate of Particles Circulation in the Fluidized Bed

Improvements on the Fluidized-Bed Equipment Simulator (FBES)

*Appendix E: Basics of Turbulent Flow*

Momentum Transfer

Heat and Mass Transfers

Reaction Kinetics

*Appendix F: Classifications of Modeling for Bubbling Fluidized-Bed Equipment*

Main Aspects

*Appendix G: Basic Techniques of Kinetics Determination*

*References*

*Index*

**Solid Fuels Combustion and Gasification: Modeling, Simulation, and Equipment Operation** clearly illustrates procedures to improve and optimize the design of future units and the operation of existing industrial systems with recommendations and guidelines from a seasoned professional in the field.

*Of critical importance to the industrial and design engineer, ***Solid Fuels Combustion and Gasification**…

**Marcio L. de Souza-Santos** is Professor of Mechanical Engineering, State University at Campinas, São Paulo, Brazil. The author of numerous professional publications, he holds several patents and is a member of the American Chemical Society, the Brazilian Society of Chemical Engineering, and the advisory committees of several national and international meetings on energy. An experienced consultant, he has worked for respected organizations such as the Institute of Gas Technology, Chicago, Illinois. He received the B.Sc. (1973) and M.Sc. (1981) degrees in chemical engineering from the University of São Paulo, Brazil, and the Ph.D. (1987) in chemical engineering from the University of Sheffield, England.

*Basic Remarks on Modeling and Simulation*

Experiment and Simulation

A Classification for Mathematical Models

Exercises

*Solid Fuels*

Introduction

Physical Properties

Chemical Properties

Thermal Treatment

Gasification and Combustion

Exercises

*Equipment and Processes*

Introduction

Elements of Gas-Solid Systems

Moving Bed

Fluidized Bed

Suspension or Pneumatic Transport

Some Aspects Related to Fuels

*Basic Calculations*

Introduction

Computation of Some Basic Parameters

Tips on Calculations

Observations

Exercises

*Zero-Dimensional Models*

Introduction

Basic Equations

Species Balance and Exiting Composition

Useful Relations

Summary for 0D-S Model

Flame Temperature

Exercises

*Introduction to One-Dimensional, Steady-State Models*

Definitions

Fundamental Equations

Final Comments

Exercises

*Moving-Bed Combustion and Gasification Model*

Introduction

The Model

Exercises

*Chemical Reactions*

Homogeneous/Heterogeneous Reactions

Numbering of Chemical Components

A System of Chemical Reactions

Stoichiometry

Kinetics

Final Notes

Exercises

*Heterogeneous Reactions*

Introduction

General Form of the Problem

Generalized Treatment

Other Heterogeneous Reactions

Exercises

*Drying and Devolatilization*

Drying

Devolatilization

Exercises

*Auxiliary Equations and Basic Calculations*

Introduction

Total Production Rates

Thiele Modulus

Diffusivities

Reactivity

Core Dimensions

Heat and Mass Transfer Coefficients

Energy-Related Parameters

A Few Immediate Applications

Pressure Losses

Exercises

*Moving-Bed Simulation Program and Results*

Introduction

From Modeling to Simulation Program

Samples of Results

Exercises

*Fluidized-Bed Combustion and Gasification Model*

Introduction

The Mathematical Model

Boundary Conditions

Exercises

*Fluidization Dynamics*

Introduction

Splitting of Gas Injected into a Bed

Bubble Characteristics and Behavior

Circulation of Solid Particles

Entrainment and Elutriation

Particle Size Distribution

Recycling of Particles

Segregation

Areas and Volumes at Freeboard Section

Mass and Volume Fractions of Solids

Further Studies

Exercises

*Auxiliary Parameters Related to Fluidized-Bed Processes*

Introduction

Mass Transfers

Heat Transfers

Parameters Related to Reaction Rates

*Fluidized-Bed Simulation Program and Results*

The Block Diagram

Samples of Results

Exercises

*Appendix A: The Fundamental Equations of Transport Phenomena*

*Appendix B: Notes on Thermodynamics*

Heat and Work

Chemical Equilibrium Equation

Specific Heat

Correction for Departure from Ideal Behavior

Generalized 0D-S Models

Heat Values

Representative Formation Enthalpy of a Solid Fuel

*Appendix C: Possible Improvements on Modeling Heterogeneous Reactions*

General Mass Balance for a Particle

Generalized Energy Balance for a Particle

*Appendix D: Improvements on Various Aspects*

Rate of Particles Circulation in the Fluidized Bed

Improvements on the Fluidized-Bed Equipment Simulator (FBES)

*Appendix E: Basics of Turbulent Flow*

Momentum Transfer

Heat and Mass Transfers

Reaction Kinetics

*Appendix F: Classifications of Modeling for Bubbling Fluidized-Bed Equipment*

Main Aspects

*Appendix G: Basic Techniques of Kinetics Determination*

*References*

*Index*

**Solid Fuels Combustion and Gasification: Modeling, Simulation, and Equipment Operation** clearly illustrates procedures to improve and optimize the design of future units and the operation of existing industrial systems with recommendations and guidelines from a seasoned professional in the field.

*Of critical importance to the industrial and design engineer, ***Solid Fuels Combustion and Gasification**…

**Marcio L. de Souza-Santos** is Professor of Mechanical Engineering, State University at Campinas, São Paulo, Brazil. The author of numerous professional publications, he holds several patents and is a member of the American Chemical Society, the Brazilian Society of Chemical Engineering, and the advisory committees of several national and international meetings on energy. An experienced consultant, he has worked for respected organizations such as the Institute of Gas Technology, Chicago, Illinois. He received the B.Sc. (1973) and M.Sc. (1981) degrees in chemical engineering from the University of São Paulo, Brazil, and the Ph.D. (1987) in chemical engineering from the University of Sheffield, England.

*Basic Remarks on Modeling and Simulation*

Experiment and Simulation

A Classification for Mathematical Models

Exercises

*Solid Fuels*

Introduction

Physical Properties

Chemical Properties

Thermal Treatment

Gasification and Combustion

Exercises

*Equipment and Processes*

Introduction

Elements of Gas-Solid Systems

Moving Bed

Fluidized Bed

Suspension or Pneumatic Transport

Some Aspects Related to Fuels

*Basic Calculations*

Introduction

Computation of Some Basic Parameters

Tips on Calculations

Observations

Exercises

*Zero-Dimensional Models*

Introduction

Basic Equations

Species Balance and Exiting Composition

Useful Relations

Summary for 0D-S Model

Flame Temperature

Exercises

*Introduction to One-Dimensional, Steady-State Models*

Definitions

Fundamental Equations

Final Comments

Exercises

*Moving-Bed Combustion and Gasification Model*

Introduction

The Model

Exercises

*Chemical Reactions*

Homogeneous/Heterogeneous Reactions

Numbering of Chemical Components

A System of Chemical Reactions

Stoichiometry

Kinetics

Final Notes

Exercises

*Heterogeneous Reactions*

Introduction

General Form of the Problem

Generalized Treatment

Other Heterogeneous Reactions

Exercises

*Drying and Devolatilization*

Drying

Devolatilization

Exercises

*Auxiliary Equations and Basic Calculations*

Introduction

Total Production Rates

Thiele Modulus

Diffusivities

Reactivity

Core Dimensions

Heat and Mass Transfer Coefficients

Energy-Related Parameters

A Few Immediate Applications

Pressure Losses

Exercises

*Moving-Bed Simulation Program and Results*

Introduction

From Modeling to Simulation Program

Samples of Results

Exercises

*Fluidized-Bed Combustion and Gasification Model*

Introduction

The Mathematical Model

Boundary Conditions

Exercises

*Fluidization Dynamics*

Introduction

Splitting of Gas Injected into a Bed

Bubble Characteristics and Behavior

Circulation of Solid Particles

Entrainment and Elutriation

Particle Size Distribution

Recycling of Particles

Segregation

Areas and Volumes at Freeboard Section

Mass and Volume Fractions of Solids

Further Studies

Exercises

*Auxiliary Parameters Related to Fluidized-Bed Processes*

Introduction

Mass Transfers

Heat Transfers

Parameters Related to Reaction Rates

*Fluidized-Bed Simulation Program and Results*

The Block Diagram

Samples of Results

Exercises

*Appendix A: The Fundamental Equations of Transport Phenomena*

*Appendix B: Notes on Thermodynamics*

Heat and Work

Chemical Equilibrium Equation

Specific Heat

Correction for Departure from Ideal Behavior

Generalized 0D-S Models

Heat Values

Representative Formation Enthalpy of a Solid Fuel

*Appendix C: Possible Improvements on Modeling Heterogeneous Reactions*

General Mass Balance for a Particle

Generalized Energy Balance for a Particle

*Appendix D: Improvements on Various Aspects*

Rate of Particles Circulation in the Fluidized Bed

Improvements on the Fluidized-Bed Equipment Simulator (FBES)

*Appendix E: Basics of Turbulent Flow*

Momentum Transfer

Heat and Mass Transfers

Reaction Kinetics

*Appendix F: Classifications of Modeling for Bubbling Fluidized-Bed Equipment*

Main Aspects

*Appendix G: Basic Techniques of Kinetics Determination*

*References*

*Index*