chapter  7
14 Pages

Causes as means

By this I mean that whenever an effect is an end, its causes automatically supply means of achieving it. In other words, bringing about a cause is always a way of bringing about its effects. Or more accurately, to allow for the fact that a fallible means may fail to achieve its end, a cause is always a means to what will be its effects if they exist. Thus if Don's falling will cause him to die if he does die, it follows that his falling would be a means to that sad end. If Sue's visiting the Bull will be a cause of her getting her gin there if they have it, then her visiting the Bull is a way for her to get her gin. And so on.