Iran and Turkey, the ‘Northern Tier’ States of the Middle East, stand, if not in stark contrast to, at least somewhat different from their Arab neighbours (Figure 9.1). Both states have (albeit imperfect) forms of democratic government. Both are grappling, so far with only modest success, with the establishment of new national institutions and state structures which transcend the defence of the existing political regimes. The consequences, among others, even in Iran and Turkey, are that the political geography of the area is characterized by insecurity, conflict and uncertain frontiers. In the following paragraphs the evolution of the Northern Tier States and Israel, the non-Arab component of the Middle East, in the period 1965-90 will be reviewed. The close linkages in oil and politics between them and the Arab countries should not, however, be overlooked at any stage.