Secondary Yinaya Literature
In the next decade, two works were to appear which began the European interest in Pall Vinaya Studies: Eugene Bumoufs Introduction a l'histoire du buddhisme indien (Paris, 1844) and Robert Spence Hardy's Eastern Monachism (London: Partridge and Oakey, 1850), each of which called
attention to some of the problems involved and presented brief translations of extracts from the Vinaya. Texts soon began to be edited, translated, and published (as we have seen above). However, due to the youthful state of the subject, a full-fledged secondary volume or article on Vinaya was still almost fifty years away. This does not mean to say that interest was confined only to editing and translating. The Buddhist saJllgha and its monastic law was addressed in such classic works of Buddhology as Buddha, sein Leben, seine Lehre, seine Gemeinde by Hermann Oldenberg (Berlin, 1881), Buddhism: Its History and Literature by Thomas W. Rhys Davids (London: G. Putnam's Sons, 1896), and Manual of Indian Buddhism by Hendrik Kern (Strassburg, 1896). Kern, in fact, had earlier published the classic Geschiedenis van het Buddhisme in Indie (published in 1882-84, and translated into German in 1884 and French in 1901-1903). In 1896 Wassiljew published "Le Bouddhisme dans sons plein developpement d'apres les Vinayas" (translated by Sylvain Levi) in Revue de I'Histoire des Religions (XXXIV, 1896, pp. 318-325), which appears to be the first authentic secondary article devoted to the general subject of Vinaya.