chapter  6
J.A. BANKS. The social structure of nineteenth century England as seen through the Census
Pages 45

It will be seen from what has been said, as to the method of arrangement of these occupational classes, that insofar as infant mortality depends upon social position it may be expected to be lowest in Class 1 and to increase regularly down to Class 5 . " There are naturally some irregularities where individual causes of death are shown for separate portions of the first year of life, but where all causes are dealt with there is no exception at any age to the steady increase of mortality from Class 1 to Class 5, and almost the same may be said for the first year of life as a whole of the groups of causes and individual causes of death except where the latter are numerically insignificant. 3


TABLE 6.1 England and Wales, 1801; persons in occupational classes

Agriculture Trade, Manufacturers, Handicraft Other Total

numbers 1,713,289 1,843,353 4,873,103 8,429,745


20.3 21.9 57.8


The tabular returns in the Report provide details for various subdivisions within Great Britain which show the extent to which industry had already begun to make its impact on the social structure. The relative insignificance of agriculture in Lancashire (8.1 per cent), for example, is apparent in comparison with 20.3 per cent for England and Wales as a whole, and even more so when compared with a county such as Devonshire (28.1 per cent) which was little affected by industrialisation, as the contrasts by reference to the proportions for Trade, Manufactures and Handicraft show even more clearly. Urban-rural contrasts can also be seen in the figures for two major urban areas in these counties, Liverpool and Exeter (Table 6.2).