Anti-Marxism in Egypt
Political thought in modem Egypt is, in its categories and arguments, derivative from European thought. It has been entirely produced by the small westernized minority which, ever since Muhammad Ali's time, has increasingly dominated the intellectual and official classes. Both before and after world war I, the trend of thought of these classes has revolved around two issues, namely: how to rid Egypt of the British occupation; and what ought to be the character and limits of government. Both issues were formulated in European terms and debated according to European assumptions and categories. They were thus of little import or significance for the mass of the Egyptians whose universe of discourse was quite different from that of their westernized rulers.