chapter  8
3 Pages

The Society of the Ottoman Council

The oppressive regime of Sultan 'Abd al-Hamid II caused many Syrian intellectuals to flee the Empire. Some emigrated to America, while others went to Egypt, where they could express their opinions relatively freely. Among those who fled were Sheikh Tahir al-Jaza'iri and many members of his circle, such as Muhammad Kurd 'Ali, Rafiq al-'Azm, and 'Abd al-Hamid alZahrawi, as well as others who would later dominate the development of the Arab societies in the period before World War I, such as Rashid Rida and Ibrahim Salim al-Najjar.