Attitudes towards the European States
The beginnings of the separatist movements and of many of the Arab societies lay in part, and perhaps principally, in external causes. The Syrian independence movement grew out of the fear following the Ottoman-Russian War in 1877-78 that the Ottoman Empire would disintegrate and Syria would be occupied by a European power. The Secret Society of Beirut, established before this war, intensified its activities in its aftermath. The Arab-Ottoman Brotherhood and the Society of the Lebanese Revival were established in the wake of the 1908 revolution. The idea of al-Fatat also developed a short time after this revolution and as a result of it. AI-Qahtaniyya and the Literary Club were established after the repression of the counter-revolution in 1909 and the intensification of Turkification. In the wake of the occupation of Libya by Italy in 1911 and the defeat of the Empire in the Balkans in 1912-13, Rashid Rida increased his activities in his Society of the Arab Association, the Decentralization Party was founded, the Reform Society of Beirut was established and the Iraqi officers planned a rebellion, as did the Syrian officers under the leadership of Salim al-Jaza'iri.