In the early 1980s, an executive at JVC (the major Japanese manufacturer of videocassette recorders that devised the VHS tape format) predicted that the penetration of VCRs would reach 70% in many countries. His rosy forecast was dismissed by many. Since then, sales of VCRs in the United States have grown nearly as fast as those of color television sets, from 2 million annual units in 1981 to over 12 million since 1986 (Video Week, 1983-1989). Today, VCRs can be found in over 65% of U.S. TV households,1 and a large percentage of consumers have already purchased their second generation VCR (National Association of Broadcasters, 1989; "Second VCR," 1987). At a time when the bloom has faded from consumer demand for cable and home satellites, consumers are increasingly attracted to a program delivery system, the VCR, whose features and availability of software put them in total control of their media consumption, no longer subject them to a "temporal tyranny" dictated by network and local station programming executives.