Risk and Resilience: Contextual Influences on the Development of African-American Adolescents: Ronald D. Taylor
Masten (chapter 1, this volume) states that resilience in individuals refers to successful adaptation despite risk and adversity. When individuals are judged to be resilient, the implication is that they have displayed adaptive behavior despite facing risks and adversities. Risk factors or adversities may come in a variety of forms, and those discussed by Masten include parental mental illness, economic disadvantage, teenage motherhood, chronic illness, criminal behavior, and delinquency. Indeed, it is possible for individuals to fall into groups having more than one risk factor (e. g., economically disadvantaged teenage mothers).