Multiple Coding Processes in Learning-Disabled and Skilled Readers
This chapter explores the role of multiple coding in learning-disabled and skilled readers' memory performance. A multiple coding hypothesis is proposed as a possible framework for interpreting disabled readers faulty recall performance on picture-naming tasks. The hypothesis views learning-disabled readers as having functionally independent visual and verbal coding systems. Because of this functional independence, procedures that induce disabled readers to mix the two codes together (as in picture naming tasks), especially when the meaning of one code is weak (i.e., verbal code), produces cost to the subject in terms of recall. In contrast, the existence of an interdependent coding system in skilled readers assumes that a word (i.e., verbal code) applied to a visual form activates a flexible coding network (common and/or modality specific codes) of both verbal and nonverbal associations and hence produces a semantic processing of input. In concert with the aims of this volume, these hypotheses are developed within contemporary theoretical models of memory performance. Two theoretical models are contrasted. Specific application is made to learning disabled children with reading problems.!