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Contextualizing Police Reform: Security, the Rule of Law and Post-Conflict Peacebuilding: Rama Mani

In the five years from 1990 to 1995, five and a half million people - more than the entire population of Norway - were killed in 93 wars involving 70 states. I Many times that number of people have suffered forced displacement, rape, torture, and loss of limb and livelihood in the course of political conflicts. In Africa alone, war has destroyed the livelihoods of over 10 million households, created between 5 and 10 million war orphans and generated 25 million refugees and internally displaced persons.2 Most conflicts in the past five decades have been waged in some of the poorest parts of the world. The majority have been intra-state conflicts, albeit with some degree of international involvement, in the form of military aid, humanitarian assistance or peace mediation. Now, as war-weary societies emerge hesitantly from conflict, erstwhile enemies must learn afresh to share common borders, govern a shared polity and work together to rebuild a fractured society.