From the moment schools were organized into systems, educational admin.. istration came into being. And the decisions made about schools, about how they should be structured and provisioned in order to achieve valued ends, depended on theories. Theories guiding the administration of early schools, of course, usually were tacit and informal. With the advent ofscientific man.. agement in the early 20th century, however, educators began to write down theories of administration. Early articles on school administration reveal that the theories recommended to practicing and prospective administra .. tors came from two sources: the work experiences ofseasoned principals and superintendents, and the results of studies conducted by a group of social psychologists sometimes referred to as "efficiency experts" (Callahan, 1962).