chapter
2 Pages

F

Failure Internal and external factors can both contribute to learning failure. Internal factors include low ability, emotional and behavioural problems, medical syndromes or conditions, neurological problems, genetic influences, learning difficulties and disabilities, sensory impairment, low perceived self-efficacy, learned helplessness, fear of failure and motivational problems. External factors include inadequate or inappropriate teaching and teaching methods, lack of differentiation, inappropriate curriculum, negative teacher-learner relationships, truancy and absenteeism, and negative classroom or school environment. Some teachers tend to subscribe to a child-deficit model and ascribe failure solely to internal factors, usually low ability, or, alternatively, if they attribute failure to external factors they usually refer to poor parenting. These teachers may underestimate or ignore other external factors such as teaching methods or other teaching-related factors. It is more productive to consider an interactionist approach, the possible influence and interaction of both external and internal factors.