It has been recognised since the mid 1990s that some boys are not achieving as well as they could do at school. The national, and international, concern that has been expressed is based partially on the narrow need of schools to improve their standards and 'meet their targets', but also more altruistically on a perception that significant numbers of young men are being let down in some way. Others have realised that it is in the enlightened self-interest of society to avoid spawning large numbers of 16-24-year-old males who have under-achieved, are under-skilled, under-employable but also under pressure to make their mark. Every under-achieving boy (and girl) is a small tragedy for the individual; but a cohort of under-achieving men will be a huge problem for any society. It is verging on a truism to point out distressed girls tend to vent their frustrations on themselves; distressed men tend to find other victims.