Political conflict, 1640–2
The first concern of the parliamentary leaders, most notably the Earl of Bedford in the Lords and John Pym in the Commons, was to delay any permanent settlement with the Scots until they had secured their own position. While the Scots army remained on English soil, Charles could not afford to dissolve Parliament and they could force him to make concessions. Parliament showed a willingness to co-operate to an extent by underwriting a Crown loan from the City of London in November, and voting two subsidies in December. However, all this enabled Charles to do was to keep the Scots paid for the time being. It came nowhere near providing him with the means to dispense with Parliament.