Introduction: The Emergence of Variable Time Standards
Working time has been historically constructed through phases of confl ict and compromise over the centuries. Moreover, it is observed that discussions around a shorter working day, and the collective actions for making it happen, have contributed to the creation of the labour and trade union movement. From the viewpoint of industry, the issue of working time has been part of the larger umbrella discussion of working conditions. The process of standardization of working hours has led to a redefi nition of the importance of working time at the heart of all social temporalities.